Thursday, August 4, 2011

World War II: Italian Campaign 1943 - 1944

World War I: Italian Campaign

In spite of its official status as member of the Triple Alliance together with Germany and Austria-Hungary, in the years before the outbreak of the conflict the Italian government had enhanced its diplomatic efforts towards United Kingdom and France. This was because the Italian government had grown convinced that a support of Austria (which had been also the traditional enemy of Italy during the 19th century Risorgimento) would not grant to Italy the lands the country was aiming for in its territorial expansion: Trieste, Istria, Zara and Dalmatia, all Austrian possessions. In fact, a secret agreement signed with France in 1902 practically nullified Italy's membership in the Triple Alliance.

A few days after the outbreak of the conflict, on 3 August 1914, the government, led by the conservative Antonio Salandra, declared that Italy would not commit its troops, maintaining that the Triple Alliance had only a defensive stance, whereas Austria-Hungary had been the aggressor. In reality, both Salandra and the minister of Foreign Affairs, Sidney Sonnino, started diplomatic activities to probe which side was ready to grant the best reward for Italy's entrance in the war. Although the majority of the cabinet (including former Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti) was firmly contrary to the intervention, numerous intellectuals, including socialists such as Ivanoe Bonomi, Leonida Bissolati and Benito Mussolini, declared in favour of the intervention, which was then mostly supported by the Nationalist and the Liberal parties.

The diplomatic moves led to the London Pact (26 April 1915), signed by Sonnino without the approval of the Italian Parliament. By the Pact, in case of victory Italy was to be given Trentino and the South Tyrol up to the Brenner Pass, the entire Austrian Littoral (with Trieste, Gorizia-Gradisca and Istria, but without Fiume), parts of western Carniola (Idrija and Ilirska Bistrica) and north-western Dalmatia with Zadar and most of the islands, but without Split. Other agreements concerned the sovereignty of the port of Valona, the province of Antalya in Turkey and part of the German colonies in Africa.

Germany and Austria-Hungary had only advanced the possibility of negotiating parts of the Trentino and Eastern Friuli, without Gorizia and Trieste. The offer of the French colony of Tunisia was deemed unsatisfactory.

In April 1915 Italy joined the Entente and on 3 May 1915 officially rejected the Triple Alliance. In the following days Giolitti and the neutralist majority of the Parliament fought to keep Italy out of the conflict, while the nationalists demonstrated in the squares in favour of entrance into the war (the nationalist poet Gabriele D'Annunzio defined them le radiose giornate di Maggio - "the sunny days of May"). On 13 May Salandra presented his resignation to King Victor Emmanuel III. Giolitti, fearful of a further blow to governing institutions, declined to succeed as prime minister and also resigned. Italy thenceforth entered the war under the impetus of a relative minority of its population and politicians.

In the early stages of the war, Allied diplomats courted Italy, attempting to secure Italian participation on the Allied side, culminating in the Treaty of London of April 26, 1915 in which Italy renounced her obligations to the Triple Alliance. On May 23, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary.

Major battles on the Italian Front during World War I. Italy entered the war against Austria-Hungary in May 1915. In spite of many bitter battles, the Italians gained little territory. But they wore down the armies of Austria-Hungary.

In the first months of the war Italy launched the following offensives:
  • First Battle of the Isonzo (23 June–7 July)
  • Second Battle of the Isonzo (18 July–4 August)
  • Third Battle of the Isonzo (18 October–4 November)
  • Fourth Battle of the Isonzo (10 November)
The territorial gains were small in comparison to the cost of the war for Italy. The debt contracted to pay the war expenses was paid back only in the 1970s. The uncertain socio-economical situation caused the heavy social strife which led to the Biennio rosso first and to the rise of the Fascism later.

Invasion of Italy (September 1943)

World War II: Italian Campaign
The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe. Joint Allied Forces Headquarters AFHQ was operationally responsible for all Allied land forces in the Mediterranean theater, and it planned and commanded the invasion of Sicily and the campaign on the Italian mainland until the surrender of German forces in Italy in May 1945.

It is estimated that between September 1943 and April 1945 some 60,000 Allied and 50,000 German soldiers died in Italy. Total Allied casualties during the campaign totaled about 320,000 and the corresponding Axis figure (excluding those involved in the final surrender) was over 658,000. No campaign in Western Europe cost more than the Italian campaign in terms of lives lost and wounds suffered by infantry forces.

Even prior to victory in the North African Campaign, there was disagreement between the Allies on the best strategy to defeat the Axis.

The British, especially Winston Churchill, advocated their traditional naval-based peripheral strategy. Even with a large army, but greater naval power, the traditional British strategy against a continental enemy was to fight as part of a coalition and mount small peripheral operations designed to gradually weaken the enemy. The United States, with an even larger army, favoured a more direct strategy of fighting the main force of the German army in northern Europe. The ability to launch such a campaign depended on first winning the Battle of the Atlantic.

Eventually the US and British political leadership made the decision to commit to an invasion of France in early 1944, but with a lower-priority Italian campaign reflecting Roosevelt's desire to keep U.S. troops active in the European theater during 1943 and his attraction to the idea of eliminating Italy from the war. It was hoped that an invasion would knock them out of the war, or provide at least a major propaganda blow. The elimination of Italy as an enemy would also enable Allied naval forces, principally the Royal Navy, to completely dominate the Mediterranean Sea, massively improving communications with Egypt, the Far East, the Middle East, and India. It would also mean that the Germans would have to transfer troops from the Eastern Front to defend Italy and the entire southern coast of France, thus aiding the Soviets. The Italians would also withdraw their troops from the Soviet Union to defend Italy.

After the capture of Rome and the Normandy Invasion in June many experienced American and French units, the equivalent of a total of 7 divisions, were pulled out of Italy during the summer of 1944 to participate in Operation Dragoon, the Allied invasion in the south of France. These units were only partially compensated by the arrival of the Brazilian 1st Infantry Division, the land forces element of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force.The Allies' final offensive commenced with massive aerial and artillery bombardments on 9 April 1945. By 18 April forces of Eighth Army in the east had broken through the Argenta Gap and sent armor racing forward in an encircling move to meet U.S. IV Corp advancing from the Apennines in central Italy and trap the remaining defenders of Bologna. Bologna was entered on 21 April by the Polish 3rd Carpathian Rifle Division and the Italian Friuli Group from Eighth Army and U.S. 34th Infantry Division from Fifth Army. 10th Mountain Division, which had bypassed Bologna, reached the river Po on 22 April and Indian 8th Infantry Division, on the Eighth Army front, reached the river on 23 April.

As April came to an end Army Group C, the Axis forces in Italy, retreating on all fronts and having lost most of its fighting powers, was left with little option but surrender. General Heinrich von Vietinghoff, who had taken command of Army Group C after Kesselring had been transferred to become Commander in Chief of the Western Front (OB West) at the end of 1944, signed the instrument of surrender on behalf of the German armies in Italy on 29 April, formally bringing hostilities to an end on 2 May 1945.

Allied Strategy in Italy (Jan 1944)

khanbaliq1943 - 1944
Focuses on the difficult Italian Campaign beginning with Operation Torch in North Africa, the invasion of Sicily; Salerno, Anzio, Cassino; and the capture of Rome. Interviewees include General Mark Wayne Clark, Field Marshal Lord Harding, Bill Mauldin, and Wynford Vaughan Thomas.

Italian Campaign WWII- Part 1 of 5
The Mediterranean, Operation Torch, Casablanca, Tunisia, Africa, and Invasion on Normandy.

Italian Campaign WWII- Part 2 of 5
Invasion of Sicily, Mafia Help, Benito Musolini, Badoglio, Salerno, Virus, Food, and Water Shortages.

Italian Campaign WWII- Part 3 of 5
South of Rome, Mosolini in German. North Defense with Terrain difficulties, Destruction, and Booby traps.

Italian Campaign WWII- Part 4 of 5
Italy, Anzio Destruction, Monastery and Trench System.

Italian Campaign WWII- Part 5 of 5
Cassino Destruction and Defense. Allied forces reach Rome.


Reason for war I believe of both WWI and WWII was to instill fear, retrieve ancient information, destroying these ancient sites, while keeping a database for their own purpose. Genocide did happen and the placing of Jews in Israel as a front while the Zionist put into action their plan for the NWO. Here is where the United Nations,was born, their Law, Policies, Army, and Authority are paving the way for the NWO. Earths level of negative energy at those times were extremely high and its implication to us and earth slowed evolution down. There is clear proof of both side being funded by the Vatican, Rockefeller, Bankers, and Kings. Hitlers published 2 books 1 was Mein Kampf the other a sequel Zweites Buch (Secret Book) New World Order (1928).

Isn't anyone learning, war is just a game for them. Normal people have no problem with other people in other countries, take a flight down there and see if people hate you or welcome you with open arms. We're all the same, equal, no matter the color of your skin, what you wear, what you believe in. Not everything you see is real (TV, Magazines, Music, Media, Mind Control) you got to understand it, seek the truth and live in harmony with others.

In most religion it states we must love unconditionally, shelter the unfortunate, live modestly, humbly, not seek materialist life style, and NOT kill our own animals don't even do that, whats wrong with us?

We got to unite under love non-violence, stop everything that is within the system. Live in a community, plant our own food and survive like this for not more than a few months and they will crumble. They need us to feed them, fill their hate, lust, power up as their slaves.

If you want to know what you are fighting for, close your eyes and picture a world intoxicated with the light of love, no filth on the streets, in the air, water and food you eat. No Money, No Jails, No War, No more Classification, No more Lies. All information past till present should be known no matter the level of secrecy and made available to everyone. Now place yourself in this society.... walk around and take you time imagine other things you see need fixing (Now I want you to Really close your eyes now and "Imagine" if you know Astral Projection or Out of Body Experience go right ahead and "Imagine")

What do you think?

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